Title: The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population Change: 3.19
National Average Age: 17
Urban Percentage: 46
Christian Population: 63,150,000
Christian Percentage: 92
Introduction: The Democratic Republic of the Congo also known as DR Congo the DRC Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes referred to by its former name of Zaire which was its official name between 1971 and 1997. The DRC borders the Central African Republic and South Sudan to the north; Uganda Rwanda Burundi and Tanzania to the east; Zambia to the south; Angola to the southwest; and the Republic of the Congo and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. It is the second-largest country in Africa after Algeria (the largest in Sub-Saharan Africa) by area and the 11th-largest in the world.
Overview: Established as an official Belgian colony in 1908 the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960 but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola Chad Namibia Sudan and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001 KABILA was assassinated and his son Joseph KABILA was named head of state. In October 2002 the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency National Assembly and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. ++ In 2009 following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP) a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict led to large population displacements and significant human rights abuses before the M23 was pushed out of DRC to Uganda and Rwanda in late 2013 by a joint DRC and UN offensive. In addition the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda the Allied Democratic Forces and assorted Mai Mai militias. In the most recent national elections held in November 2011 disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency; the next presidential election is scheduled for late 2016.