Population Change: -0.03
National Average Age:
Christian Population: 0
Introduction: 'Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory and headland on Spain''s south coast. It’s dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar a 426m-high limestone ridge. First settled by the Moors in the Middle Ages and later ruled by Spain the outpost was ceded to the British in 1713. Layers of fortifications include the remains of a 14th-century Moorish Castle and the 18th century Great Siege Tunnels which were expanded in WWII.'
Overview: Strategically important Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967 Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002 the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004 Spain the UK and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009 a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013 the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007 and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense foreign relations internal security and financial stability.