Title: Turkmenistan

Population: 5,579,889

Population Change: 1.5

National Average Age: 27

Urban Percentage: 53

Christian Population: 466,000

Christian Percentage: 9

Introduction: Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia bordered by the Caspian Sea and largely covered by the Karakum Desert. It’s known for archaeological ruins including those at Nisa and Merv major stops along the ancient trade route the Silk Road. Ashgabat the capital was rebuilt in Soviet style in the mid-20th century and is filled with grand monuments honoring former president Saparmurat Niyazov.

Overview: Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires and was conquered by Alexander the Great Muslim crusaders the Mongols Turkic warriors and eventually the Russians. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924 Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves which have yet to be fully exploited have begun to transform the country. Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects. The Government of Turkmenistan is actively working to diversify its gas export routes beyond the still important Russian pipeline network. In 2010 new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006 and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW emerged as the country's new president; he was chosen as president again in February 2012 in an election that the OSCE said lacked the freedoms necessary to create a competitive environment.